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Pugwash in Eastern Europe: The Limits of International Cooperation under Soviet Control

Olšáková Doubravka

The beginnings of Pugwash overlapped with the first stage of the process of de-Stalinization which had a marked effect on science and on scientific cooperation across the Iron Curtain. In the international context, by the end of 1950s Pugwash opened the doors to Soviet ambitions of playing an active part in the international community at the very point when the World Peace Council was experiencing its deepest crisis. Despite the political pressure from Moscow, the various Academies of Sciences, which represented Pugwash national committees in their respective countries, managed to benefit from these circumstances. They developed important contacts with Western scientists and specialists such as Henry Kissinger, Paul M. Doty, and Marshall D. Shulman. This cooperation stimulated research agenda in Eastern Europe, though its scope was still controlled by the USSR. Nevertheless, after 1975 – and most importantly after 1982 – Pugwash managed to establish contact with non-Communist peace initiatives and the dissident movement in Eastern Europe.

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